ILP CPD webinar: Our Connected Future – Smart Lighting

We recognise that Smart Cities is a wide-ranging topic, therefore, Lara Jiad BEng(Hons) CEng MIET from WSP, will address this in bite sized chunks, focusing on connected public services to increase operational efficiency, share information with the public and improve both the quality of government services and citizen welfare.

Q&As

Question Answer
Is there a data source for the 90% of UK population in urban by 2030? Provided by the World Resources Institute (http://www.wri.org).
Many Local authorities are installing LoraWAN networks. Will these become out of date when 5G is rolled out? LoraWAN and NB-IoT are both low power wide area technologies addressing similar user needs for connecting IoT sensors. LoraWAN is based on unlicensed spectrum and for some types of deployment may result in lower overall cost but requires local authorities to commit to owning the wireless solution whereas NB-IoT requires no such commitment since MNOs provide the wireless solution. Each has its pros and cons and both are expected to co-exist for many years.
When will GN12 be issued, as this will influence ‘smart cities’ rollout? GN12 is currently being published. Expect it to be issued at the end of March to mid-June.
Are there standards which explain on the type and what smart elements can be accommodated on lighting system? What are the limitations? The limitations are really controlled by the structural integrity (BS EN 40 / PD6547) of the lighting column and day time aesthetics /clutter of the column when the equipment is attached. Structural, environmental, planning and  standards have to be adhered to. The Electronic Communication Code (Digital Economy Act 2017) and EU Implementing Regulation 2020/911 acts providers have legal authority to mount onto highway assets so Local authorities need to adopt a joined up approach. Otherwise, no limitation and suitability of the additional attachment should be evaluated on a case by case basis depending on the application.
Like many other local authority Lighting Engineers, I have concerns about the roll out of 5G equipment onto lighting columns, particularly bearing in mind the regular scare stories about health issues with 5G. Hopefully the LA lighting teams will be involved with the installation of such hardware, so we can take account of potential structural considerations, power supply requirements etc. It’s our understanding that other research has been undertaken regarding health implications from 5G and it concludes that there are no health hazards from 5G. In our experience, lighting, structural and environmental teams are involved in such deployments.
With more and more systems becoming interoperable with the IOT, do you know if there are plans for a common language for interoperability between different technologies? Are appropriate standards being drafted to ensure IOT wide CyberSecurity for all of the new and legacy devices that are now potential network entry points for malicious attacks? Yes open source IoT protocols such as MQTT are becoming mainstream and making it possible for a range of dissimilar IoT sensors to share a common solution for collecting data and sharing it with interested parties. LoraWAN and NB-IoT both provide encryption and we have been involved in projects where PKI authentication has been deployed for some types of sensor. currently the ETSI TS 103 645 / EN 303 645 development is working on a Cyber Security standard for IoT (currently under public review), which will be based on UK Code of Practice for Consumer IoT Security (2018) published by DCMS and German DIN SPEC 27072 (2019). Further the International Society of Automation is drafting an addition to their ISA/IEC 62443 Cyber Security for Industrial Automation Control System standard series. This addition will focus on Cyber Security of IIoT (industrial IoT) and drive the standardisation as well the security product assurance.
Who carries the risk for the extra equipment loaded onto the column if it’s not owned and maintained by the LA? GN12 will suggest that for existing lighting columns, they should be considered as lighting assets with attachments not communications equipment with a street light attached. In terms of suitability of existing assets to accommodate additional attachments or equipment, GN12 ‘The Smart Lighting Column’ will suggest a process for assessing and testing suitability. GN12 suggests it should be the  organisation wanting to attach equipment that should use the document to demonstrate to the reasonable satisfaction of the asset owner suitability, not for the asset owner to explain why it is unsuitable.
How many sensors are involved in the Wokingham gully sensor trial? Three no. sensors installed in high flood risk gullies.
With the attachments on the columns how are you calculating your windage? Information regarding weight, windage, and electrical requirements should be provided by the organisation wanting to attach their equipment. This, of course, will be needed in their report to demonstrate suitability of the lighting asset. The attributes that relate to wind loading will be explained in the forthcoming GN12 The Smart Lighting Column.
Regarding the human impact of IoT. As smartphones are evaluated for their electromagnetic radiation risk. Are there any large scale studies showing the potential physical risks associated with widespread IoT connected devices? We are un-aware of such studies which have taken place.
Is there any concern in the industry about the roll out of additional communication devices to an already struggling network? I’m sure that many people have experienced frequent loss of service, is this a concern? Is not a concern because mobile operators will be building new core networks to accommodate for these additional demands.
How did you choose the equipment suppliers? For the Wokingham Smart Drainage Sensors, we set-out a design and quality criteria for the end-end solution, and undertook a market evaluation of the different types of sensors to select the appropriate supplier.
For the West Midlands trial, were the column structurally tested prior to installation? All equipment was assessed for wind loading by a structural engineer.

All lighting columns where statically load tested regardless of age.
For the West Midlands trial, were the additional equipment on the column metered? or unmetered via Elexon UMSUG codes? All equipment connected into the lighting column supply have UMSUG code. The supply was un-metered.
How do you assess the capacity for columns to accept additional loading, as many columns are designed to minimise the steel thickness to reduce cost, particularly over the past few years? Information regarding weight, windage, and electrical requirements should be provided by the organisation wanting to attach their equipment. This, of course, will be needed in their report to demonstrate suitability of the lighting asset. This will be explained in the forthcoming GN12 The Smart Lighting Column. From this report there will be an assessment of the strength of existing columns to carry the additional load and the impact on its residual life.
West Midlands 5G Group have been acting as liaison between LA’s and 5 G providers and have been in discussions with BSI regarding the manufacture and implementation of “standard” smart poles. These will potentially carry lighting, smart sensors, EV charging and 5G and will consequently be very expensive to install and maintain. Is there anything you’re aware of that would enable LA’s to accommodate this additional maintenance liability? GN12 will assist in developing this.
What distance do the 5G WIFI repeaters need to be. Will these need fibre connections?    The distance between 5G cells will be depending on the built environment, it’s not necessary to use fibre optic cable, wireless technology can be used for connecting mobile cells into mobile network operators (MNOs) core networks.
Looking ahead, what is the likelihood of environmental monitoring functions (water levels, weather, etc.) to merge in to a single platform – e.g., CMS? It depends on LA ambitions and vision; one model is to use a number of cloud platforms for storing sensor data. An alternative approach is for the LA to build their own cloud capability for storing all sensor data in one place.
How to protect all attached comms equipment in the event of accident or can we mount them on passively safe column and how it work in terms of safety? Arrangements for making safe in an emergency situation will be determined in the agreement between the lighting authority and the communications company, comment on this will be in GN12. It is important that lighting asset managers are part of that process so they can use their experience to understand the operational impact. As with all attachments on passive safe columns they must not affect the passive rating of the column / structure and they themselves must be passive in nature, i.e., collapse upon hitting the ground / object. Note. the majority of aluminium columns are passive by nature of design / materials.
5G sensors have a minimum safe distance from humans, how will this risk be managed for columns knocked down? Will need risk assessment and processing involving interaction between MNOs and LA for such events happening.
Who signs of the EM interference requirements for all the different types of comms equipment? An overall system designer may need to be appoint to take this overall responsibility.
Are there any legal challenges by LA’s with telecoms companies disputing the lighting column being treated as the “Highway”? The Telecommunication Act defines a lighting column as an extension of the highway. This has been investigated by a couple of local authorities and found to be true. GN12 The Smart Lighting Column is a way for the local authority and the communications equipment owners to work together to deliver these services.
Is it possible to provide a size to the additional equipment on the structure? We are product designers. Additional equipment such as communications antenna, transmitters and repeaters will vary between suppliers and manufacturers. If the information to be outlined in GN12 ‘The Smart Lighting Column’ is followed then there will be a process for assessing the suitability of existing and proposed lighting assets to safely carry the additional load and for the electrical systems to accommodate the extra circuits.
I understand that 5G transmitters will not be installed on street lighting columns as they are not high enough. The only equipment to be put on columns will be sensors which operate on lower frequencies. Our understanding that new legislation will allow new 5G transmitter to be attached however they will be small cells limits to a short range.
With the target of NetZero by 2050, will it be possible for these components to track carbon use? Yes, such as environmental air quality monitors will cover this objectives.
I would imagine that the fixing and drilling of the column to attach items would compromise the column structure. Who would assess this? Information regarding weight, windage, electrical requirements and any hole drilling for connections should be provided by the organisation wanting to attach their equipment. This, of course, will be needed in their report to demonstrate suitability of the lighting asset. This will be explained in the forthcoming GN12 The Smart Lighting Column.
Residents have asked about safety issues if the columns are knocked down? Arrangements for making safe in an emergency situation will be determined in the agreement between the lighting authority and the communications company. It is important that lighting asset managers are part of that process so they can use their experience to understand the operational impact.
Guidance on 5G and health from GSMA – https://www.gsma.com/publicpolicy/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/SmallCellForum_2015_small-cells_and_health_brochure.pdf N/A

Skills

Posted on

March 12, 2021

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